Egyptian Law

Law No. 82 of 2002
Pertaining to the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
The People's Assembly has passed the following law, and it is hereby
promulgated:

Article One
The protection of intellectual property rights shall be governed by the attached law.

Article Two
The following laws shall hereby be repealed

A) Law # 57 of 1939 pertaining to Trademarks and Commercial Data.
B) Law # 132 of 1949 pertaining to Patents of Invention and Industrial Drawings and Designs; with the
exception of the provisions of patents of inventions regarding foodstuff - related chemicals and pharmaceutical chemicals, which shall be repealed as of January 1st, 2005
C) Law # 354 of 1954 pertaining to Copyright Protection.
Any provisions that contradict with the provisions of the attached law shall be hereby repealed.

Article Three
Upon recommendation of the competent Ministers, the Cabinet shall issue the implementing regulations, within a term not exceeding one month as from the date of enactment of the law herein.
The competent Ministers shall issue, according to their jurisdiction, the decisions required for implementing the provisions of the attached law.
The Ministers, according to their jurisdiction, shall adopt measures necessary to protect the public health and nutrition; or to promote sectors of vital importance to the socio-economic and technological development; within the limits specified by the provisions of the attached law.
The Ministers, according to their jurisdiction, may undertake the procedures necessary, within the limits of the law herein, to prevent the misuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or to resort to practices, which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology, in accordance with the attached law.


Article Four
This law shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall come into force as from the date following the publication date.
However provisions for patents of inventions concerning foodstuff - relatedchemicals, pharmaceutical chemicals and microorganisms and products that were not previously subject to protection, before the issuance of the law herein, shall come into force as from January 1st, 2005; without prejudice to articles 44 and 45 of the attached law.
The law herein shall hold the seal of the State, and shall come into force as one of the laws thereof.
Issued in the Presidency of the Republic on Rabia'a 1st 21, 1423 H
(concurrent with June 2; 2002 A.D.)
Hosni Mubarak
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The section included below contains the part about patents withen the above law.

Part I
Patents of Invention, Utility Models, Layout Designs of Integrated
Circuits and Undisclosed Information

Chapter one
Patents of Invention and Utility Models

Article 1:
Patents of invention shall be granted pursuant to the provisions of the law herein for each invention, which
is industrially applicable, novel and involves an inventive step, either concerning new industrial products, innovated industrial methods, or new application of known industrial methods Patents shall be independently granted for each amendment, modification or addition to an invention already granted a patent; provided that the conditions of novelty, innovation and industrial applicability are fulfilled in such invention, as illustrated in the preceding paragraph. Patents shall be granted to the owner of the amendment, modification or addition, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein.

Article 2:
Patent of invention shall not be granted for the following:
1- Inventions, whose exploitation, may result in prejudice to national security, breach of public order or morality or seriously damage the environment or the life or health of human, animal or plant.
2- Scientific theories and discoveries, mathematical methods, programs and layouts.
3- Diagnosis, therapeutic and surgical methods for man or animal.
4- Plants and animals, whatever the level of rareness or strangeness thereof; and biological processes for the production of plants or animals; with the exception of micro-organisms and the non - biological and microbiological processes for the production of plant or animal.
5- Living organisms, tissues, cells, natural biological materials, deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and genomes.

Article 3:
The invention shall not be deemed novel, whether in whole or in part, in the following cases:
1- If, before the date of filing the patent application, an application has already been submitted for issuing
a patent of invention, or a patent has been issued for part or whole of the invention, in A.R.E or abroad
2- If the invention has been publicly used or exploited in A.R.E or abroad; or if the description thereof has been disclosed to the extent that enables those skilled in the art to use such invention, before filing the patent application.
The disclosure mentioned in the preceding paragraph does not include revealing the invention in the national or international exhibitions, within six months, before the date of filing the patent application.
The Executive regulations implementing the law herein shall determine the conditions and procedures for disclosing the invention.

Article 4:
Without prejudice to the provisions of international agreements in effect in A.R.E., every natural or
corporate body, either Egyptian or foreigner, who belongs to or have an actual and active place of business in one of the States or entities that are members of the World Trade Organization; or that treat A.R.E on reciprocal basis, shall have the right to apply for a patent of invention to the Patent Office in A.R.E. and shall be entitled to the rights resulting therefrom, pursuant to the provisions of the Law herein.
With regard to the rights provided for in the present chapter, any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity granted to nationals of any state, under any other law, shall be accorded immediately to all nationals of all member states of the World Trade Organization. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity originating from the following:

(A) International agreements on Judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature;
B) Intellectual property rights agreements, which were applicable before January 1st, 1995

Article 5:
The Patent Office shall hold a register specified for the recordation of applications for patents of invention and utility models, and all data related thereto and related to the exploitation and transactions made thereupon pursuant to the provisions of the Law herein and as indicated in the implementing regulations
thereof.

Article 6:
The right to the patent shall be upheld to the inventor or his successors in title. In case that the invention has resulted from a joint effort of several persons, the right to the patent shall jointly and equally be confirmed to all of them, unless otherwise agreed upon. In case that the invention has been made by several independent persons, the right to the patent shall be confirmed to the person who first applies for the patent.

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Article 7:
In case that a person has assigned another to achieve a particular invention, all the rights resulting from such invention shall be granted to the former. The employer shall be entitled to all rights resulting from the inventions that have been achieved by the employee or the worker while being bound by the employment or recruitment relationship; so long as the invention falls within the scope of the contract or the employment or recruitment relationship.
The name of the inventor shall be mentioned in the letters patent. The inventor shall, in all cases, receive fair remuneration for the invention thereof. In case that such remuneration has not been agreed upon, the inventor shall be entitled to fair compensation from the above assignor or employer. In cases other than those mentioned above, and whenever the invention falls within the field of activity of the public or private establishment, in which the inventor works, the employer shall have the option of either exploiting the invention or purchasing the patent, in return for fair compensation to be paid to the inventor. The choice shall be made within three months beginning from the date of notification of the grant of the patent. In all cases, the invention shall remain attributed to the inventor.

Article 8:
An application for a patent of invention, which is submitted by the inventor, within one year as of the date of quitting the public or private establishment, shall be deemed to be filed within the validity period of the contract or the employment or recruitment relationship, in which case the inventor and employer shall be entitled to all the rights provided for in the preceding article as the case may be. Such period shall be extended to three years, should the worker establish or join a competitive establishment and the invention was a direct yield of his activities and experiences in the previous establishment.

Article 9:
The protection period prescribed for a patent of invention shall be twenty years starting from the date of applying for the patent in A.R.E.

Article 10:
The patent shall confer upon the proprietor thereof the right to prevent third parties from exploiting the invention in any manner.
The right of the patentee to prevent third parties from importing, using, selling or distributing the goods shall be exhausted, should the patentee market such goods in any State or grant license to third parties in this respect.
The following acts shall not be deemed infringement on such right:
1- Scientific research - related acts.
2- Third parties' manufacturing of a product, usage of a method for manufacturing a certain product, or adoption of serious measures to this aim in A.R.E, unless in mala fide, before a patent application in respect of the same product or a method of manufacturing thereof has been submitted. The above third parties may continue the same activities in favor of the establishment thereof only, without expansion despite the issuance of the patent. The right to exercise such activities may not be assigned, or transferred unless in association with the whole establishment.
3- Indirect usage of the method of production that constitutes the subject of the invention for the purpose of obtaining other products.
4- Using the invention in the transportation means in land, sea or air in one of the member States or Entities of the World Trade Organization, or the States or Entities that treat Egypt on reciprocal basis, in case that any of such means temporarily or contingently exist in A.R.E.
5- The manufacture, installation, usage or sale of the product by third parties during its protection period, for the purpose of obtaining a license for marketing thereof; provided that marketing shall not begin before the end of the protection period.
6- Acts undertaken by third parties, other than the acts mentioned above, provided that such acts do not unreasonably contradict with the general usage of the patent and do not unreasonably damage the lawful interests of the patentee, without prejudice to the lawful interests of third parties.

Article 11:
A fee shall be due upon submitting the application for a patent of invention. A progressive annual fee shall also be due beginning from the second year and lasts for the termination of the period prescribed for the patent.
The implementing regulations shall determine the value of such fees, which shall not exceed two thousand Egyptian pounds, upon submitting the application, and shall not exceed one thousand pounds for the annual fee.
The implementing regulations shall also determine the rules of reducing such fees and the cases of exemption therefrom.
The applicant for a patent shall pay the remunerations of the experts whose assistance is sought by the Patent Office, in addition to the examination fees.

Article 12:
The inventor or his successor in title shall apply for a patent to the Patent Office, pursuant to the terms and conditions prescribed by the implementing regulations of the Law herein. The application for a patent may not include more than one invention. The group of inventions forming an integrated innovated idea shall be deemed one invention.

Article 13:
The application for patent, in respect of each of the goods and the methods applied for, shall be accompanied by a detailed description (specifications) of the invention including full elaboration of the subject thereof, and of the best method that enable those skilled in the art to carry it out.
The description shall clearly include the new elements (claims) that the interested party seeks to protect. The application shall further be accompanied by engineering drawing(s) of the invention, when necessary.
In case that the application is related to an invention including biological botanical or zoological materials or conventional knowledge in the field of medicine, agriculture, industry, vocation, or environmental or civilizational heritage, the inventor shall obtain the sources thereof by lawful methods.
In case that the application is related to micro-organisms, the applicant shall disclose such organisms, and shall deposit a live culture thereof at the entity to be determined by the implementing regulations implementing the law herein.
Subject to the provisions of article 38 of the law herein, the applicant shall, in all cases, abide by presenting full information and data about the applications that have been previously submitted abroad in respect of the same invention or in relation to the subject whereof; as well as the outcome of the examination of such application.
The executive regulations implementing the law herein shall determine the attachments to the application for a patent; the period within which the same shall be submitted; and the cases that entail the rejection thereof.

Article 14:
The Patent Office may request the applicant for patent to effect the amendments or fulfillment, it deems fit, on the application, in accordance with the provisions of article (13) of the law herein, as indicated in the executive regulations. Should the applicant fail to do so, within three months as of the date of being notified, the applicant shall be deemed to have abandoned the application.
The applicant may petition against the decision issued by the Patent Office, regarding such demand, before the committee provided for in article 36 of the law herein, within thirty days, in accordance with the procedures indicated by the executive regulations.

Article 15:
The applicant for a patent may submit, at any time before the acceptance of the patent application is announced, an application for amending the specifications or engineering drawing of the invention, accompanied by a statement about the nature and reasons of the amendment; with the proviso that such amendment shall not alter the essence of the invention itself. The same procedures followed for the application for a patent shall apply to such case.

Article 16:
The Patent Office shall examine the application for a patent and the attachments thereto in order to verify that the invention is novel, involves an inventive step and industrially applicable, pursuant to the provisions of article (1), (2) and (3) of the law herein. If the invention fulfills the above mentioned conditions, and the provisions stipulated in articles 12 and 13 of the law herein were observed in the application for a patent, the Patent Office shall proceed to publish the acceptance of the application in the Patents Gazette, in the manner prescribed in the executive regulations.
Any interested party may oppose in writing, within sixty days from the date of announcing the acceptance
of the application in the patents gazette, against proceeding with the issuance of the patent, through a notification to the Patent Office including the reasons for the opposition, pursuant to the conditions defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
The opposer shall pay a fee prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein not less than one hundred pounds and not exceeding one thousand pounds. Such fee shall be refunded, in case that the opposition has been accepted.
Oppositions shall be examined by the committee provided for in article (36) of the law herein, in accordance with the conditions and procedures prescribed by the executive regulations.

Article 17:
The Patent Office shall deliver to the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Military Production, the Ministry of Interior or the Ministry of Health, as necessary, copies of the applications for patents pertaining to defense, military production, or public security or patents of military, security or health value; together with the attachments to such application, within ten days after the date of completion of the examination.
The applicant shall be notified in this respect, within seven days from the date of delivery. The Minister of Defense, the Minister of Military Production, the Minister of Interior, or the Minister of Health, as necessary, may oppose against the announcement of the acceptance of the patent application, within ninety days from the date of delivery.
The Competent Minister, as the case requires, may oppose, after announcing the acceptance of the patent application, against proceeding with the issuance of the patent, if it appears to the Minister that the application relates to defense, military production or public security affairs; or that the application has military, security or health value. Opposition shall be lodged within ninety days from the date of publishing the acceptance of the application for Patent in the Patents Gazette.
Oppositions in the above mentioned cases shall result in the stay of procedures of issuing the patent.

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Article 18:
A fund for supporting the prices of medicines, other than those prepared for export shall be established, and shall have the corporate personality. Such fund shall be governed by the Minister of Health and Population, for the purpose of achieving development in health and ensuring that such prices shall not be affected by variable conditions. The President of the Republic shall issue a decision of regulating the fund and specifying its resources. Such resources shall include contributions, which are approved by the State, from the Granting States and international governmental and non - governmental organization.

Article 19:
The announcement of the acceptance of the application for a patent shall not be made, unless after the lapse of one year as from the date of filing. Such application shall remain confidential during such period. The patent shall be granted pursuant to the decision of the competent Minister or authorized representative thereof. Such decision shall be published in the patents gazette in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 20:
After announcing the acceptance of the application, any person may view such application as well as the documents thereof and the particulars relating thereto recorded in the patents register. Any person may further obtain a copy of the above, in return for a fee prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein, not exceeding one thousand pounds, and in accordance with the terms and procedures stipulated by the executive regulations.

Article 21:
The Patent may be assigned in whole, or in part, with or without compensation, and it may as well be subject of mortgage or usufruct.
Without prejudice to the provisions of selling and mortgaging commercial establishments; patents shall not be assigned, and the mortgage or usufruct thereof shall not be enforceable against others, unless after the date of the recordation thereof in the patents register. The assignment, mortgage or usufruct of a Patent shall be published in accordance with the terms and procedures prescribed by the executive regulations.

Article 22:
The creditor may sequestrate the patent of his debtor, pursuant to the rules specified for sequestration of the movables in the possession to debtor and held by third parties. The patent office shall not observe the provisions relating to the declaration made by the sequester regarding the properties thereof held by the sequestrated party.
The creditor shall inform the Patent Office of the sequestration and the minutes of the auction knock down, for the purpose of recordation in the register. Neither of the above shall be enforceable against third parties, unless after the date of such recordation. Sequestration shall be published in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 23:
The Patent Office - after the approval of a Ministerial Committee established by a decree from the Prime Minister - shall grant compulsory licenses for the exploitation of the invention. The committee shall determine the financial rights of the patentee upon the issuance of such licenses, in the following circumstances:

First - If the competent Minister - as appropriate - established that the exploitation of the invention may accomplish the following:

1- Purposes of non-commercial public utility; such as the maintenance of national security, health and safety of the environment and food.
2- Facing emergencies or cases of extreme urgency. The compulsory license shall be issued to face the cases aforementioned in items
(1) and (2), without any need for pre-negotiations with the patentee, or for the lapse of a certain period of time since negotiating with him, or the proposal of reasonable prerequisites to obtain his approval of the exploitation.
3- Supporting national efforts in the sectors that are vital for the economic, social and technological development, without unreasonable violation of the rights of the patentee, and taking into consideration the legitimate interests of others.
The patentee shall be promptly notified with the decision of the compulsory license in the cases provided for in items (1) and (3), and in the nearest reasonably available opportunity in the cases aforementioned in item (2).

Second - Upon the request of the Minister of Health in case of the failure of the available amounts of the drugs protected by patent to meet the needs of the country, the decrease in the quality thereof, the abnormal increase in the prices thereof, or if the invention relates to drugs used for critical conditions, chronic, incurable or endemic diseases, or to the products utilized in the prevention from these diseases, and regardless of the invention being related to the drugs, the method of the production thereof, the primary raw materials used in the production thereof, or the method of the preparation of the raw materials necessary for the production thereof.
In all such cases, the patentee shall be promptly notified with the decision of compulsory license.

Third - If the patentee refuses to license others for the exploitation of the invention - for whichever purpose of exploitation - though suitable prerequisites have been offered to him and a reasonable period of negotiations has lapsed.
In such case, the applicant for the compulsory license shall prove that he has made serious efforts to obtain the voluntary license from the patentee.

Fourth- If the patentee does not exploit the patent in the Arab Republic of Egypt by himself or upon his approval, or it has not been sufficiently exploited, in spite of the lapse of four years from the date of submitting the patent application, or three years from the date of the grant thereof - whichever is longer - and also if the patentee ceases the exploitation of the invention without an acceptable reason for a period exceeding one year.
The exploitation may be achieved by the production of the protected product in the Arab Republic of Egypt, or by the utilization of the method of manufacture protected by a patent of invention therein.
Yet, if the Patent Office - in spite of the lapse of either of the two periods referred to above - considers that the non-exploitation of the invention is due to legal, technical or economic reasons, out of control of the patentee, he may be granted another grace period to exploit the invention.

Fifth - If the abuse of the patentee has been proven, or if it has been proven that he practiced his rights afforded by the patent in an anti competitive manner, and these include the following:

1- Overpricing the products protected by a patent, or the discrimination among the clients in respect of the prices and the selling conditions thereof.
2- Not supplying the market with the protected product, or providing it with unfair conditions.
3- Ceasing the production of the protected commodity or producing such in a quantity that does not bring about the proportion between the productivity and the market needs.
4- Acting or behaving in a way that has a negative effect on the freedom of competition, in accordance with the declared legal constraints.
5- Practicing the rights entitled by law in a way that has a negative effect on the transfer of technology.
In all the previous cases, the compulsory license shall be issued without need for negotiations, or the lapse of a certain period of time in negotiations, even when the compulsory license does not aim at meeting the needs of the domestic market.
The Patent Office may reject to terminate the compulsory license, if the conditions leading to the issuance thereof, are persistent and may predictably occur again.
The damages caused by the abusiveness and non-competitive practices of the patentee shall be taken into account when due compensation for the patentee is estimated.
The Patent Office may invalidate the patent, if evidence arises that, after a period of two years from granting the compulsory license, the said license has not been sufficient to make up for the negative effects which have afflicted the national economy due to the abusiveness of the patentee in using his rights, or his anticompetitive practices.
Any interested party may petition against the decision of the patent invalidation before the committee provided for in article (36), in accordance with the terms and procedures determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Sixth - If the right holder of the patent of invention cannot exploit such except with the exploitation of another invention necessary therefor, and the invention represents a significant technical progress and a technical and economic importance compared to the other invention, the right holder may obtain a compulsory license from the other licensee, and in such case the said other may have the same right. The licensed exploitation of one of the two patents may not be assigned except with the assignment of the exploitation of the other patent.

Seventh - In the case of the inventions relating to the technology of semi - conductors, the compulsory license shall not be granted except for the purposes of the public and non commercial interest, or for the remedy of the effects which are proven to be anti - competitive.
The compulsory licenses in the cases provided for in this article may be granted in pursuance to the rules and procedures determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

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Article 24:
Upon the issuance of the compulsory license, the following shall be taken into account:
1- The application for the issuance of the compulsory license shall be resolved in accordance with the independent circumstances of each case, and the license shall primarily aim at meeting the domestic market needs.
2- The applicant for the compulsory license shall prove that he has exerted, during a reasonable period of time, serious efforts to obtain voluntary license from the patentee in return for equitable remuneration, but he failed.
3- The patentee shall have the right to petition against the decision of granting the compulsory license for a third party before the committee provided for in article (36) of the law herein, within thirty days starting from the date of his notification of the issuance thereof, in accordance with the terms and procedures determined by the executive regulations.
4- The applicant for the compulsory license, or licensee shall be able to exploit the invention in a serious manner in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
5- The licensee who obtains the compulsory license shall be committed to utilize the invention in the scope, according to the prerequisites, and within the period determined by the decision of granting the said compulsory license. If the period of the compulsory license has come to an end without achieving the purpose of the said exploitation, the Patent Office may renew the period.
6- The exploitation of the compulsory license shall be limited to the applicant. However, the Patent Office may grant it to another party.
7- The licensee who obtains the compulsory license shall have no right to assign such to others except with the establishment, or with the part thereof pertaining to the utilization of the invention.
8- The patentee shall have the right to obtain an equitable compensation in return of the exploitation of his invention, the economic value thereof shall be taken into consideration in the estimation of the compensation. The patentee shall have the right to petition against the decision of the estimation of the compensation before the committee provided for in article (36), within thirty days from the date of his notification of the decision, and in accordance with the terms and procedures determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
9- The compulsory license shall end by the expiry date thereof. However, the
Patent Office may decide to cancel the compulsory license before the expiry date thereof, if the reasons for granting are no longer valid, and probably will not be valid. The procedures provided for in the executive regulations shall be followed in this respect.
10- The patentee may request the termination of the compulsory license, prior to
the termination date, if the reasons for obtaining it are no longer valid and will probably not be valid.
11- The legitimate interests of the licensee shall be taken into consideration upon the termination of the compulsory license before the termination date thereof.
12- The Patent Office shall modify the prerequisites of the compulsory license or cancel such, on its own initiative or in response to the request of any interested party, if the licensee has not used the license within two years from the date of the grant thereof, or if he violates the obligations provided for in the license.

Article 25:
The patent of the invention may be expropriated for reasons relating to national security, and in cases of extreme urgency in which compulsory license may not be sufficient to cope with them based upon a decision from the competent Minister - and after the approval of the Ministerial Committee referred to in Article (23) of the law herein.
The expropriation may be limited to the expropriation of the right of the exploitation of the invention for the needs of the State.
In all cases, the expropriation shall be in return of equitable compensation. The estimation of the compensation shall be through the Committee provided for in article (36) of the law herein, and in accordance with the prevalent economic value at the time of issuance of the expropriation decision.
The expropriation decision shall be published in the Patent Gazette. The appeal of the expropriation decision and of the decision of the committee relating to the estimation of the compensation shall be before the Administrative Court, within sixty days from the date of the notification of the interested party with the decision pursuant to a letter delivered by registered mail with a return receipt.
The court shall promptly settle such appeal.

Article 26:

The rights resulting from the patent shall be terminated, and thus fall in the public domain in the following cases:
1- The termination of the protection period in accordance with article (9) of the law herein.
2- The patentee's waiving of his rights without any prejudice to the rights of others.
3- A final judgment issued for the invalidation of the patent.
4- Not paying the annual fees or the lateness fine which are (7%) of the due fees, within one year from the due date, after being notified to pay, in accordance with the procedures determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
5- Non - exploitation of the invention in Egypt within the two years following the grant of the compulsory license, and based upon an application filed by any interested party to the Patent Office.
6- Abusiveness of the patentee in the exploitation of his rights in the cases where the compulsory license may not be sufficient to make up for such abusiveness.
The patents, for which the rights of their owners have terminated in accordance with the foregoing provisions, shall be published in the Patent Gazette in the manner determined by the executive regulations.

Article 27:
The Administrative Court shall be competent for examining the cases related to the issued decisions regarding patents.

Article 28:
The Administrative Court may, upon the request of the Patent Office or any interested party, order the addition to the register of any particulars whose recording has been omitted or the amendment of any particulars appearing in the register contradicting with the reality, or the cancellation of any particulars in case it has been unlawfully recorded.
The Patent Office or any interested party may request the court to nullify the patents granted in conflict with the provisions of articles (2) and (3) of the law herein. The abovementioned Administration shall cancel such patents once a final decision to this effect is presented thereto.

Article 29:
Utility model patents shall be granted in accordance with the provisions of the law herein on every new technical addition in constructing or constituting the means, tools, equipment or parts thereof, products, compositions or methods of producing all the abovementioned, and other matters utilized in the current usage thereof.
The applicant may transfer his application into an application for patent of an invention, and the applicant for a patent of invention shall have the right to transfer his application into an application for utility model patent.
In both cases, the recordation shall go back to the date of the original application.
The Patent Office may - on its own initiative - convert an application for a utility model patent into an application for a patent of invention when the conditions thereof are fulfilled.

Article 30:
The protection period for a utility model shall be seven non - renewable years starting from the date of filing the application for a utility model patent to the Patent Office in the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Article 31:
A fee shall be due upon the application for a utility model patent, and an annual fee shall be also due, gradually increasing from the second year and until the expiry of the patent.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall determine the value of these fees which shall not exceed one thousand pound for each application, and also the rules for the reduction thereof and the cases of the exemption therefrom.

Article 32:
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article (10) of the law herein, any party which commits any of the following shall be penalized by paying a fine not less than twenty thousand pounds and not exceeding one hundred thousand pounds:-

1- Counterfeits with the aim of commercial circulation the object of a patent or a utility model granted a patent in accordance with the provisions of the law herein.
2- Sells, offers for sale or for circulation, imports or possesses with the aim of trading imitated products while knowing that they are so, for which, or for the methods of production thereof, a patent of invention or a utility model patent is granted, and valid in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
3- Unlawfully places on products, advertisements, trademarks, packaging materials or other matters, data leading to the belief that such party had registered a patent of invention or a utility model patent.
In case of recurrence, an imprisonment term of not more than two years and a fine not less than forty thousand pounds and not exceeding two hundred thousand pounds shall apply.
In all cases, the court shall order the confiscation of the counterfeit products subject of the crime and the tools used therein, and the judgment shall be published at the expense of the convicted, in one or more daily newspaper.

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Article 33:
The patentee or the owner of utility model may submit a request to the Head of the competent court, as the case may be, to issue an order of precautionary measure regarding the alleged counterfeit products or goods of the patentable product, in accordance with the specification disclosed in the letters patent or utility model. An order shall be issued specifying the precautionary measures necessary for maintaining these products and goods in a manner that ensures that they will remain as they are.
The aforementioned order may be issued before filing the action, and it shall become void if the case has not been filed within eight days from the date of the issuance thereof.

Article 34:
The identical product shall be considered to be obtained by using the method protected by a patent if the claimant proves in his civil action that:

1- The identical product has been obtained by the direct usage of the method protected by a patent.
2- The claimant has exerted reasonable effort to uncover the method used in the production.
In such case, the court may order the defendant to prove that the procedures used to obtain the identical product is different from the procedures protected by the patent owned by the claimant.
The court shall take into consideration, while conducting proceedings of proving the right of the claimant to protect his industrial and commercial secrets.

Article 35:
The Head of the competent court, pursuant to the request of any concerned party and in accordance with a written injunction, may order one or more of the appropriate precautionary measures to fulfill payment of the adjudged fines or compensations, and he may further order, if necessary, that the seized products be destroyed.

Article 36:
Pursuant to a decree of the competent Minister, a committee competent in reviewing the petitions against the decisions issued by the Patent Office, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, shall be established headed by a judge from the Court of Appeal or one of the same degree among the members of the jurisdiction authorities, and the membership of an assistant judge from the State Council and three experts. The petition shall be filed before the committee in return of a fee determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein of not more than five hundred pounds.
The committee shall adjudge the petition in a period not exceeding sixty days from the date of filing the petition, and the decision thereof shall be final.
Except for the applications for cancellation coupled with the requests for the suspension of execution, the lawsuits may not be accepted before the courts concerning the decisions of the Patent Office, unless after adjudging the petition or the lapse of sixty days as from the date of filing the application therefor without adjudging it.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall regulate the procedures of such committee.

Article 37:
The Patent Office and the interested parties may challenge the decision issued by the committee provided for in article (36) of the law herein, before the administrative courts within sixty days from the date of the notification of the Patent Office or the interested parties thereof, by a registered letter with a return receipt. The court shall decide promptly upon that appeal.

Article 38:
If an application for a patent of invention is filed in a member State or Entity of the World Trade Organization (WTO) or which treats the Arab Republic of Egypt on a reciprocal basis is filed, the applicant or the successors thereof may, within the year following the date of the application, apply to the Patent Office in the Arab Republic of Egypt, for a similar application concerning the same subject, in accordance with the conditions and terms provided for in the law herein and the executive regulations thereof. In such case, the date of the first application in the foreign country shall be the basis for determining the priority.

Article 39:
The employees of the Patent Office may not file, directly or through an intermediary, applications for patents of invention except after the lapse of at least three years as from the date they cease working at the Patent Office.

Article 40 :
The provisions for the patents of invention shall apply in all the cases where there is no special provision concerning utility model patents.

Article 41:
The provisions of the law herein shall apply to all applications submitted to the Patent Office and no patent of invention have been issued therefor, before the date of entry into force of the law herein, and the applicant may amend his application to conform with the provisions of the law herein.
The specified protection period of the law herein shall apply to all patents of invention whose protection period did not terminate at the date of entry into force of the law herein, so as to complete the protection period provided for in article (9) of the law herein.

Article 42:
The Minister of Justice, in coordination with the competent Minister, shall issue a decision to determine those who are law officers with respect to the execution of the provisions of the law herein.

Article 43:
The Patent Office shall receive applications for patents of invention concerning the agricultural chemical products associated with the nutrition, and the chemical pharmaceutical products to keep them together with the applications pertaining to the same type of products which were filed starting from the first of January 1995, until the said office begins examining them starting from the first of January 2005 A.D.
In the case of granting patents for the inventions related to the products provided for in the preceding paragraph, the protection thereof shall start from the grant date and till the termination of the period provided for in article (9) of the law herein, starting from the date of filing the application.

Article 44:
Taking into consideration the specified date for beginning the examination of the applications for patents of invention related to the products provided for in article (43) of the law herein, the applicant for the patent shall have the right to request the competent governmental authority to grant him exclusive marketing rights for his product in the Arab Republic of Egypt, in accordance with the following conditions: -

1- The applicant has filed an application for that product in the Egyptian Patent Office starting from the first of January 1995.
2- The same product has acquired a patent of invention to protect it in a Member State of the World Trade Organization (WTO), based on an application filed in that state starting from the first of January 1995.
3- The applicant has obtained approval for the circulation of this product in the same country in which he had obtained the patent starting from the first of January 1995.
4- The applicant has acquired the approval of the competent Ministry to circulate such product in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The Egyptian Patent Office shall grant a certificate for the exclusive marketing right, after the approval of a ministerial committee established for this purpose upon a decree from the Prime Minister.
The exclusive marketing right shall not be granted, if it is obvious prima facie from the papers submitted to the Patent Office in order to acquire a certificate for the exclusive marketing rights, that the application submitted to the Office to obtain the patent has been published a year prior to the filing date of that application.
The applicant shall enjoy the exclusive marketing rights of his product, which the competent governmental authority has approved to grant therefor until the Egyptian Patent Office shall decide upon the application for the patent, or for five years calculated from the date of the approval to grant him these rights, whichever period is shorter.
The exclusive right of marketing, previously granted, shall be cancelled by cancellation of the previous decision of circulation issued by the competent Ministry, or if the right holder has abused his rights.

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Chapter Two
Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits

Article 45:
The term "integrated circuit" shall, in the application of the provisions of the law herein mean any goods, in its final or intermediate form, where the elements therein, at least one of which is an active element, and some or all of the inter - connections are integrally formed in and / or on a piece of insulating material and which is intended to perform with some or all the connections an electronic function. The term "layout design" shall, in the application of the provisions of the law herein, mean any three dimensional disposition prepared for an integrated circuit intended for manufacture.

Article 46:
New layout designs of integrated circuits shall enjoy protection pursuant to the provisions of the law herein.
The layout design shall be deemed novel, so long as it results from an intellectual effort exerted by the creator thereof and is not among the general information known by those skilled in the subject industrial art. Nevertheless, the layout design, shall be deemed novel if the coupling and connecting of the components therein are new in essence; in spite of the fact that the components thereof may fall within the general information known to those skilled in the subject industrial art.

Article 47:
Any concept, method, technical system or encoded information that may be included in the layout - design of integrated circuit, shall not be subject to protection.

Article 48:
The Protection Period for layout designs of integrated circuits shall be ten years calculated from the date of applying for registration in A.R.E, or from the date of the first commercial exploitation in A.R.E. or abroad, whichever is earlier.
The protection period prescribed for layout - designs shall terminate, in all cases, after the lapse of fifteen years calculated from the date of preparing the design.

Article 49:
The right holder shall apply for registration of layout - design to the Patent Office.
The application shall be accompanied by a photograph or drawing of such design; a sample of each integrated circuit, which has been commercially exploited; and the information indicating the electronic function of such design.
The applicant may exclude one or more parts of the design, had the submitted parts thereof been sufficient to define and specify the function of such design.
A register shall be set up in the Patent Office, for recording the applications for registration, pursuant to the terms and procedures prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein. A fee shall be due for each application to be determined by the executive regulations not exceeding one thousand pounds
The application shall not be accepted, if it is submitted after the lapse of two years as of the date of the first commercial exploitation of the design on the part of the right holder, either in Egypt or abroad.

Article 50:
Any natural or juridical person may not undertake any of the following acts without prior written approval from the right holder of the protected layoutdesign:

1- Copying the layout-design, in whole or a new part thereof, either by incorporation in an integrated circuit or by any other means.
2- Importing, selling or distributing for the purposes of trading a layout - design, either independently from an integrated circuit or incorporated therewith, or which constitutes an element of a good.

Article 51:
Without prejudice to the provisions of protection prescribed in the present chapter; any natural or juridical person may undertake one or more of the following acts, without obtaining a license from the right holder:

1- Copying or commercially exploiting in the manner of importing, selling, or distributing an integrated circuit containing protected layout-design or a good used in the manufacture thereof such integrated circuit, if such person did not know or had no reasonable grounds to know at the time of performing such act that a protected layout - design is incorporated in such integrated circuit or good.
In which case, the person in control of such integrated circuit may dispose of the stock on hand or product ordered before such time, liable to payment of a fair compensation to the right holder, after being notified by the right holder by registered mail with return receipt requested, indicating that the integrated circuit or good held by same includes a protected layout-design.
2- Using a protected layout-design either in a personal manner or for the purpose of testing, examining, analyzing, teaching, training or conducting scientific research on a protected layout-design. In case that such usage results in innovating a new layout-design, the innovator shall be entitled to the right of protecting it.
3- Innovating a layout-design that is identical to another protected layout-design, as a result of independent efforts.
4- Importing a protected layout-design or the integrated circuit produced by using a protected lay out - design, whether such circuit is independent or incorporated in a good; or otherwise importing the product that includes an integrated circuit, incorporating a protected layout - design, provided that either is being circulated in A.R.E or abroad.

Article 52:
The Patent Office may grant compulsory licenses to third parties for using a protected layout-design, in virtue of the provisions of compulsory licensing in respect of patents, stipulated in articles 23 and 24 of the present law herein.

Article 53:
The violation of article (50) of the law herein shall be punishable by a fine not less than twenty thousand pounds and not exceeding one hundred thousand pounds.
In case of recurrence the penalty shall be imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years and a fine not less than forty thousand pounds and not exceeding two hundred thousand pounds.

Article 54:
Provisions of articles (4), (33), (35) and (42) shall apply to the present chapter.
Chapter Three Undisclosed Information

Article 55:
Undisclosed information shall be protected pursuant to the provisions of the law herein; so long as such information:

1- Is secret, in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components generally known among, or readily accessible to, persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
2- Has a commercial value for the reason of being secret; and
3- Has been subject to reasonable steps taken by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep
it secret.

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Article 56:
The protection provided for in the provisions of the law herein shall extend to undisclosed information, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, and which is presented to the competent authorities, upon request thereform, as a condition of approving for marketing of chemical pharmaceutical or agricultural products that use new chemical formations and which is essential to conduct compulsory testing before allowing the marketing of the said products The competent authorities receiving such information shall protect such data against disclosure and unfair commercial use; as from the date of receiving the information up to the termination of the secrecy thereof; or for a period not exceeding five years, whichever is less.
The disclosure of such information by the competent authorities, where necessary to protect the public, shall not be deemed infringement on the rights of the holder of such information.

Article 57:
The person lawfully in control of such undisclosed information shall undertake the necessary steps for protecting such information to prevent circulation thereof, by incompetent parties.
The person lawfully in control of such information shall further regulate the circulation of such information within the establishment and restrict such circulation to persons legally competent for safeguarding and preventing disclosure of such information to third parties.
The person lawfully in control of such information shall be held accountable for third parties infringement on such information, unless it has been proven that such person has exerted considerable and reasonable efforts for safeguarding such information.
The information shall remain deemed secret and the resulting rights to prevent third parties from infringement thereon shall remain valid, so long as information remains undisclosed pursuant to the provision of article (55) of the law herein.
The rights of the person lawfully in control of such information shall be restricted to prevent third parties from infringement thereupon by any act contrary to honest commercial practices, referred to in article (58) of the law herein. Such person may further resort to judicial authorities in case of proving that third parties have committed any such acts.

Article 58:
The following acts shall, in particular, be deemed contrary to honest commercial practices; and the commitment thereof shall imply unfair competition:

1- Bribing workers at the body in control of the information, aiming at obtaining same;
2- Instigating workers to disclose information, had such workers attained such information ex officio;
3- Disclosing by one of the contractual parties to a "secrecy of information contract" the information relating thereto that came to his knowledge;
4- Obtaining information under control, by any unlawful manner such as larceny, espionage or otherwise;
5- Obtaining information by adopting fraudulent methods; and
6- Third parties' usage of information obtained by adopting any of the acts mentioned herein above, while being aware of the secrecy thereof; and of being obtained by any of the above-mentioned acts.
The disclosure, acquisition or usage of such undisclosed information by third parties through adopting any of the above acts, without authorization from the person lawfully in control of such information, shall be deemed infringement on such undisclosed information.

Article 59:
The following acts shall not be deemed contrary to honest commercial practices:

1- Obtaining information from public accessible sources, such as libraries, including patent libraries, governmental registers that are open to the public, researches, studies and reports that have been already published;
2- Obtaining information as a result of exerting personal and independent efforts, aiming at extracting information through examination, testing and analysis of the product in circulation at the market which embody undisclosed information;
3- Obtaining information as a result of the efforts that have been exerted, in the areas of scientific research, innovation, invention, development, modification and improvement, in a manner independent from the holder of undisclosed information.
4- Acquiring and using information that is generally known, readily accessible or otherwise circulated among persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question.

Article 60:
The holder of undisclosed information or his successor may assign such information to third parties, with or without compensation.

Article 61:
Without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in any other law; a penalty of a fine not less than ten thousand pounds and not exceeding fifty thousand pounds, shall be imposed upon any person unlawfully disclosing, acquiring, or using protected information, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, while being aware that such information is secret and has been unlawfully obtained.
In case of recurrence, the penalty shall be imprisonment for a period not exceeding two years and a fine not less than fifty thousand pounds and not exceeding one hundred thousand pounds.

Article 62:
Provisions of articles (4), (33), (35) and (42) shall apply to the present chapter.

Trademarks, Commercial Data, and Geographical Indications

Article 63:
Trademark is any sign capable of distinguishing the product or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, including, distinctive names, signatures, words, letters, numerals, drawings, symbols, signboards of shops, fiscal and official stamps, pictures, protruded engravings, and combination of colors in a specific and distinctive form; as well as any combination of such elements if being employed or needed to be employed for distinguishing products of an industrial process, agricultural or forestay exploitation, earth extracts, or any commodity; for indicating the origin, kind, category, guarantee or method of preparation of products or commodities; or for indicating the performance of one of the services.
In all cases, the trademark shall be visually perceptible.

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Article 64:
Commercial Registration Department shall be the competent authority for recording trademarks in the register of Trademarks, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein and the executive regulations thereof, subject to articles 3 and 4 of the decision issuing law # 115 of 1958 regarding correspondences and signboards; wherein stipulating that the Arabic language shall be used.

Article 65:
The registrant of a trademark shall be deemed the proprietor thereof, so long as such registration is associated with five- year- usage subsequent to registration; unless, the priority of usage has been proven for others.
The party, who has prior use of the mark, may appeal for the invalidation of registration, within the said five - year - term.
Nevertheless, the appeal for the invalidation of registration, without being bound by any time period, so long as such registration was associated with mala fide.

Article 66:
Without prejudice to the provisions of international conventions applicable in A.R.E., any natural or juridical person, either Egyptian or foreigner belonging or having the actual and effective place of business in one of the states or entities that are member of the World Trade Organization, or that treat Egypt on reciprocal basis, shall have the right to apply to the Registration Department in A.R.E for registration of a trademark and shall be entitled to any of the resulting rights pursuant to the provisions of the law herein.
With regard to the rights provided for in the present chapter, any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity granted to nationals of any State, under any other law, shall be accorded immediately to all nationals of all member States of the World Trade Organization. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity originating form the following:

(1) International agreements on Judicial assistance or law enforcement of a general nature;
(2) Intellectual property rights - related agreements, which were applicable before January 1st, 1995

Article 67:
The following shall not be registered as trademark or an element thereof:

1- Marks devoid of any distinctive characteristic or formed of signs or data, which are merely nomenclatures given by the established usage of the products, drawings, or the natural figures thereto;
2- Marks that contravene public order or morals;
3- General emblems, flags and other symbols of the State or other States, regional or international organizations, as well as any imitation therefor;
4- Marks that are identical or similar to symbols of pure religious nature;
5- Red cross or red crescent symbols or other similar symbols; as well as marks that are imitation thereto;
6- Photographs or emblems of third parties, unless with prior consent therefrom;
7- Information regarding degrees of honor, which the applicant for registration does not prove its being conferred thereupon; and
8- Marks and geographical indications that may mislead public, or cause confusion thereto, or that include untrue information about the source or other characteristics of the products, either products or services; as well as marks that include data about imaginary, imitated or counterfeit trade name.

Article 68:
The owner of a trademark, which is well known in Egypt and worldwide, shall enjoy the protection prescribed in the law herein; even if such mark has not been registered in A.R.E.
The Department shall undertake, ex officio, to refuse or to cancel the application for registration of a trademark that is identical to a well-known mark, which includes the use of a mark for distinguishing products that are similar to those distinguished by the well-known mark; unless such application has been submitted by the owner of the well-known mark.
The preceding provision shall apply to applications for registration, which include products, not identical to that distinguished by the well-known mark; in the following cases: i) the well-known mark is registered in one of the member states of the World Trade Organization and in A.R.E.; ii) the use of such mark in relation to the above non-identical product, may make others believe that there is a connection between such product and the owner of the well-known mark; and iii) the interests of the owner of the well-known mark are likely to be damaged by such use.

Article 69:
Collective marks shall be used for distinguishing a product produced by a group of persons belonging to a particular entity, even if such entity does not possess an industrial or commercial establishment.
The registration of such marks shall be applied for, through the representative of such entity.

Article 70:
The competent Minister may - for the purposes of public welfare -authorize natural or juridical persons, who inspect or examine products, to register marks designated for indicating such inspection or examination, regarding the origin, elements, method of production, characteristics, essence or any other features characterizing such products, has been conducted thereon.
Such mark may not be disposed of unless by special authorization from the competent Minister.

Article 71:
The right of the trademark owner to prevent third parties from importing, using, selling or distributing goods distinguished by such mark shall be exhausted, if such owner marketed or licensed third parties to market such goods in any State.

Article 72:
The Trademark that is affixed on products exhibited in one of the national or international exhibitions shall be granted temporary protection. Such protection shall not result in extending the period prescribed in article (75) of the law herein.
The competent Minister shall designate such exhibitions, pursuant to decision issued by the same. The executive regulations implementing the law herein shall determine the terms, conditions and procedures required to grant such protection.

Article 73:
Application for registration of a trademark shall be submitted to the Commercial Registration Department, in accordance with the conditions and terms prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein. Such executive regulations shall determine the categories of the fees due on the application and all relevant procedures regarding the mark. The total fees in this regard shall not exceed five thousand Pounds.

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Article 74:
The Trademark shall be registered for one or more classes or types of products, produced or intended to be produced by the applicant, pursuant to the conditions and terms defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
The use of the mark shall be restricted to the class (s) or type (s) in respect of which the mark has been registered.
Provisions of article (91) of the law herein shall apply to the classes in respect of which the mark has not been seriously used.

Article 75:
In accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated by the law herein and the executive regulations thereof; if an application for registration of a mark that has been filed in one of the member States or entities of the World Trade Organization, or one of the States or entities that treat A.R.E. on reciprocal basis, the applicant or his successor in title may submit to the Department in A.R.E., within six months from the date of applying for registration, a similar application relating to the same mark and including the same products that were included in the previous application.
In such case the priority shall be determined according to the date of submitting the first application in the foreign country.

Article 76:
If two or more parties apply simultaneously for registration of the same mark or marks that are identical or similar in respect of one class of the products, the registration procedures shall be stayed, until one of the parties presents waivers from its contestants or a final judgment issued in its favor.

Article 77:
The commercial Registration Department may, based on a justified decision, request the applicant for the registration of a trademark to make the necessary amendments on the subject mark for defining and clarifying same, in order to avoid confusion with another previously registered trademark or a prior application for trademark.
The applicant shall be notified of such decision, via registered mail with return receipt requested, within thirty days from the date of issuance thereof.
The Department may reject the application if the applicant did not make the amendments requested by the Department within six months as from the date of notification.

Article 78:
The applicant may petition against the decision issued by the Department, referred to in article (77) of the law herein , within thirty days from the date of being notified in this respect. The petition shall be examined by one or more committees to be formed by a decision from the competent Minister. Such committee shall consist of three members, one of whom shall be a member of the State's Council.
The executive regulations implementing the law herein shall set forth the rules governing the formation of the committee and the procedures of submitting, examining and issuing a decision on the petitions.

Article 79:
Without prejudice to the right of the interested party to lodge an appeal, pursuant to the law; if the committee referred to in the preceding article, has upheld the decision of rejecting the application for registration of Trademark for being similar to another previously registered in respect of the same products or the same class, such mark may not be registered in favor of the applicant, unless pursuant to a final court judgment.

Article 80:
The Department shall publish the decision of acceptance of the application for registration of the mark in the Trademark, Industrial Designs and Models Gazette, in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
Any interested party may oppose against the registration of the mark through a written notification directed to the Department, including the reasons for the opposition, within sixty days from the date of publication, pursuant to the conditions set forth by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
The Department shall serve a copy of the notification concerning the opposition to the applicant, within thirty days from the date of receiving the notification.
The applicant for registration shall submit to the Department, a justified written reply to such opposition, within thirty days from the date of receiving the notification; otherwise the applicant shall be deemed to have abandoned the application.
The executive regulations implementing the law herein shall set forth the rules and procedures regulating the above.

Article 81:
The Department shall issue a justified decision on the opposition, either accepting or rejecting the registration, after hearing both parties to the dispute. The Department may incorporate in the decision of approving the registration an order for the applicant to carry out the prerequisites that are deemed necessary by the Department, in order to proceed with the registration of the mark.

Article 82:
The decision of the Department hereinabove mentioned in article (81) of the law herein may be challenged before the Administrative Court of Jurisdiction, pursuant to the procedures and dates provided for in the State's Council law.

Article 83:
The mark shall be registered, pursuant to a decision from the Department. Such decision shall be published in the Trademark, Industrial Designs and Models Gazette, in the manner stated in the executive regulations implementing the law herein.
Registration shall be effective from the date of submitting the application.

Article 84:
The Department shall grant the owner of the registered mark a certificate pertaining to the data published about the mark in the above-mentioned Gazette.

Article 85:
The owner of the registered mark may submit in writing an application to the Department, for inserting any amendment to the mark, which does not substantially affect the essence of the mark. The owner may as well apply for inserting any amendment, through cancellation and not addition, to the products covered by the mark.
The decision of accepting or rejecting the application for amendment shall be issued pursuant to the provisions stipulated for the decisions approving the original applications for registration.
In this respect, provisions stipulated for oppositions, petitions, appeals and publications shall apply to such decisions.

Article 86:
Any person may request to peruse the registered marks, or to obtain extracts or copies of the register thereof, pursuant to the rules and procedures defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein; and in return for a fee prescribed by such regulations, not exceeding one hundred pounds.

Article 87:
A Trademark may be assigned, subjected to rights in rem or seized independently of the place of business or the commercial establishment, pursuant to the rules and procedures prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 88:
Assignment of the place of business or the commercial establishment shall include the marks registered in the name of the owner, if such marks are closely associated with the place of business or the commercial establishment, unless otherwise agreed upon. If the assignment of the place of business or the commercial establishment does not include the trademark, the owner of the mark may use it for the same type of products, or the class (s) in respect of which the mark has been registered, unless otherwise agreed upon.

Article 89:
Assignment, usufruct or mortgage of a mark may not be enforceable against third parties, unless after being recorded in the register and published in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 90:
The protection period resulting from registering a mark shall be ten years, and shall extend for a similar period or periods, upon request of the owner thereof, during the last year of each protection period, and in return for the same fee due on the first application for registration.
After not more than six months calculated from the end of such period, the owner may apply for renewal of the protection period, in return for the prescribed fee and an additional fee determined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein, not exceeding five hundred pounds; otherwise the Department shall cancel the mark.

Article 91:
The court of jurisdiction may, upon request of any interested party, decide to cancel the mark pursuant to a final judgment, if it is established to the court that the mark has not been seriously used for five consecutive years, without reasonable justification.

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Article 92:
A cancelled Trademark may be re-registered for the benefit of its owner only, within three years calculated from the date of cancellation, pursuant to the conditions and in accordance with the same procedures stipulated for registration; and in return for a fee to be prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein, not exceeding one thousand pounds.
After the lapse of the said period, such mark may be registered for the benefit of its owner and for third parties, in respect of the same products, pursuant to the conditions and in accordance with the same procedures and fees prescribed for the first registration.
Nevertheless, if cancellation has taken place in implementation of a final judgment stipulating the non-eligibility for registration of the mark, such mark may be registered for the benefit of third parties immediately upon cancellation.

Article 93:
A decision of extending, renewing or canceling registration or otherwise of reregistration after cancellation shall be published in the Trademarks and Industrial Designs and Models Gazette, in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 94:
The Department and any interested party may resort to the relevant court of jurisdiction, in cases other than those stipulated in article (85) of the law herein, requesting the addition of any unintentionally omitted entry, or the deletion or amendment of any entry that has been unlawfully recorded in the register, or that is not identical to reality.

Article 95:
The owner of the mark may grant license to one or more natural or juridical persons to use the mark for some or all of the products in respect of which the mark has been registered. Such licensing shall not prevent the owner of the mark from using same; unless otherwise agreed upon.
The owner of the mark may not terminate or decide not to renew the license agreement; unless for a lawful reason.

Article 96:
For the recordation of a license agreement in the trademark register, the signatures therein shall be authenticated or legalized. The license shall not be enforceable against others, unless after registration and publication in the manner defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 97:
The licensee may not assign the license agreement unless with the assignment of the place of business or the commercial establishment in which the mark is used to distinguish the products thereof; unless otherwise agreed upon.
The mortgage or usufruct of a license agreement shall not be enforceable against third parties, unless after recordation and publication in the manner prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 98:
The license agreement may not include any terms that unnecessarily restrict the licensee, in order to maintain the rights resulting from the registration of a mark.
Nevertheless, the license agreement may include the following terms:

1- Limitation of the duration of the license granted for the use of the mark.
2- Reasonable terms that secure the right of the trademark owner to practice quality control on the products distinguished by the licensed mark; in a manner that does not contravene the freedom of the licensee in management and operation.
3- Obligation imposed upon the licensee to abstain from carrying out any act that might lead to depreciation of the products distinguished by the mark.

Article 99:
The owner of the mark or the licensee may request the cancellation of the recordation of the license agreement. The other party shall be notified by the Department with such request.
Cancellation shall take place in the cases and in accordance with and procedures prescribed by the executive regulations implementing the law herein.

Article 100:
Any illustration directly or indirectly relating to the following, shall be deemed, in the application of the provisions of the law herein, commercial data:

1- The number, quantity, size, measure, capacity or weight of the products;
2- The place or country in which the products are manufactured or produced;
3- The method of manufacturing or producing such products;
4- The elements and components contained in the composition of such products;
5- Name or title of the manufacturer or producer;
6- The existence of patents or other industrial property rights, or any industrial or commercial privileges, rewards or advantages; and
7- Name or shape by which some products are generally known.

Article 101:
The commercial data shall be true, in all aspects, whether being affixed on the same products itself or the, packages, invoices, letter heads, advertising materials, or other means used for displaying products to the public, or otherwise affixed on or at the shops or warehouses, or on the signboards thereof.

Article 102:
Any kind of medals, diplomas, rewards or degrees of honor may not be mentioned except for products on which such privileges apply, and for trade names, persons, or the successors in title thereof, upon whom such privileges were conferred. The above shall include correct data concerning the granting date, kind and event as well as the grantor.
Any person who has jointly exhibited products may not use for the products solely owned by him, the advantages granted to the products that were jointly exhibited; unless such owner clearly illustrates the source and kind of such advantages.

Article 103 :
If the amount, size, measure, capacity, weight, source, or elements of composition of the products are among the factors contributing to the evaluation thereof, the sale, offer for sale or importation of such products may be prohibited, upon a decision of the competent Minister, unless such products bear such data.
The competent Minister may issue a decision of determining the manner of affixing such data on the products in the Arabic language, and the alternative procedures, when necessary.

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Article 104:
Geographical indications identify a good as originating in a territory or a region in a Member State of the World Trade Organization or a State that deals with A.R.E on reciprocal basis, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristics of such goods, which affect the sales promotion thereof are essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
Such indications shall be protected, provided that they have acquired protection in the country of origin.

Article 105:
Any person belonging to a region well - reputed for producing a particular kind of goods may not affix on products, in which he trades, geographical indications suggesting that such products originate in the well - reputed region, in a manner that misleads public.

Article 106:
No means may be used in the designation or presentation of a product that indicates or suggests that the product in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner, which misleads the public.

Article 107:
The producer of a product in a region well - reputed for producing such product, may not affix a geographical indication on the similar products produced by him in other localities, in a manner, which suggests that such similar products originate in such well - reputed region.

Article 108:
Geographical names may be attributed to some products, where such names have substantially become, in the commercial usage, an indication of the product itself and not the geographical origin thereof.

Article 109:
A trademark that contains a geographical indication may be registered, with the proviso that the products are continuously produced by the applicant in the well - reputed geographical territory.

Article 110:
A trademark that contains a geographical indication may not be registered, if the use thereof is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.

Article 111:
A trademark which contains a geographical indication may be registered, if the right to such mark has been acquired through using such mark, in bona fide, before the coming into force of the law herein, or before granting protection to the geographical indication in the country of origin.

Article 112:
Any interested party may bring an action before the competent Court of First Instance, via the conventional channels, requesting to prevent the usage of a geographical indication not included in a registered trademark, if such use is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true origin of the good.
The competent Court of First Instance shall be the Court in which jurisdiction the geographical indication is used.

Article 113:
Without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in any other law, the following shall be penalized by imprisonment for a period not less than two months and a fine not less than five thousand pounds and not exceeding twenty thousand pounds, or either of the two penalties:

1- Any person forging a trademark that has been lawfully registered or counterfeited such mark in a manner that misleads public.
2- Any person using in mala fide a forged or counterfeit mark.
3- Any person affixing, in mala fide, on his products a trademark owned by third parties.
4- Any person who knowingly sells, offers for sale or circulation or acquires for the purpose of sale or circulation products that bear a forged, counterfeit or unlawfully affixed trademark.
In case of recurrence, the penalty shall be imprisonment for a period not less than two months and a fine not less than ten thousand pounds and not exceeding fifty thousand pounds.
In all cases, the court shall decide to confiscate the products subject of the crime or the amounts of money or articles obtained therefrom, as well as the implements that have been used in the commission of such crime.
On issuing a court ruling of incrimination, the court may decide to close the establishment that has been exploited by the adjudged party in committing the crime for a period not exceeding six months. Such closure shall be obligatory in case of recurrence.

Article 114:
Without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in any other law, a penalty of not more than six - month - imprisonment and a fine not less than two thousand pounds and not more than ten thousand pounds, or either of both penalties, shall be imposed upon the following:

1- Any person affixing commercial data contrary to reality, on his products, shops, and warehouses or on the signboards thereof, or on the packages, invoices, letterheads, media means or other means used in displaying the products to the public.
2- Any person unlawfully citing data, on his marks or commercial papers, which suggests that the mark has been registered.
3- Any person using an unregistered mark in the cases stipulated in paragraphs 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 of article 67 of the law herein.
4- Any person citing any kind of medals, diplomas, rewards or degrees of honor on products not relating thereto or attributing same to trade names or persons who did not acquire same.
5- Any person who has jointly displayed products and used for his own products the advantages that have been granted to the jointly displayed - products; unless such person clearly illustrates the source and kind of such advantages.
6- Any person affixing geographical indications, on the products in which he trades, in a region well - reputed for producing a particular good, if such affixation is of such a nature as to mislead the public by suggesting that the goods originates in such region.
7- Any person using any means for designating or displaying a good, in a manner that misleads the public, by suggesting that such good originates in a well - reputed geographical territory other than the true place of origin thereof.
8- Any producer of a good in a region well - reputed for producing such good affixing a geographical indication on the similar goods produced by him in other territories in a manner that falsely represents that the goods originates in the said region.
In case of recurrence, the penalty shall be imprisonment for not less than one month, and a fine not less than four thousand pounds and not exceeding twenty thousand pounds.

Article 115:
The Head of the relevant court of jurisdiction may order, upon request of any interested party, and pursuant to an order to be issued in a memorandum, that one or more of the relevant provisional measures, be undertaken; and in particular:

1- Proving the infringement on the protected right.
2- Making a stock taking report and preparing a detailed description of the machines and implements, which are / were used in the committing of the crime; and the products, goods, signboards of shops, packages, invoices, letter heads, advertising materials, or the other means which bear the infringing trademark, data or geographical indication; as well as the imported products upon the arrival thereof.
3- Sequestration of the items mentioned in clause (2) hereinabove.
The Head of the Court may order, in all cases, to delegate one or more experts for assisting the process server who is charged with execution, and may order the applicant to post a suitable guarantee.
The applicant may refer the dispute to the Court of Jurisdiction within fifteen days from the date of issuing the order; otherwise the order shall be deemed null and void.

Article 116:
The adjudged party may petition against such order to the head of the court who has issued such order, within thirty days from the date of issuance or proclamation thereof, as necessary. The Head of the court may uphold or cancel the order, in whole or in part.

Article 117:
The Court may issue a ruling, in any civil or penal action, of selling the articles that have been / will be sequestered and of deducting the price thereof from compensations or fines; or order to dispose of such articles in any other manner as deemed appropriate by the Court.
The Court shall order to destroy the infringing marks and may, if necessary, order to destroy the products, goods, signboards, packages, invoices, letter heads, advertising materials or any other means bearing such mark, data or geographical indications, in a manner that contravenes the provisions included in this chapter. The Court may order, as well, to destroy the machines and implements that have been used in committing the crime.
The Court may further order to publish the court ruling in one or more newspapers at the expense of the adjudged party.
The Court may issue one or more of the above mentioned orders, even in case of acquittal.

Article 118:
The Minister of Justice shall issue, upon agreement with the competent Minister, a decree determining the competent law officers entitled to implement the provisions of this chapter.

Chapter II
Industrial Designs and Models

Article 119:
Every arrangement of line and every embodiment with or without colors, if it is distinctively novel and applicable for industrial use, shall be considered an industrial design or model.

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Article 120:
The Industrial design or model is not considered novel if:

1- It has been displayed, described or the uses thereof are described to the public prior to the date of deposit of the application for registration thereof.
However, the industrial design or model shall still be considered novel, if the description or display thereof has been made after the application for the registration thereof in a Member State of the World Trade Organization (WTO), or in a country that treats Egypt on reciprocal basis, or if such is displayed in national or international exhibitions, or the industrial design or model has been made public in a conference or in scientific Journals within a period not exceeding six months prior to the date of the application for the registration in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
2- It includes non - basic differences in respect of a prior industrial design or model, or is dedicated to another type of products other than to which the previously industrial registered design or model was designed for.

Article 121:
Without prejudice to any provisions of international agreements in force in the Arab Republic of Egypt, any natural or judicial person - Egyptian or foreigner - belonging to or having a real and effective activity in any State or entity member in the World Trade Organization or in any country that treats Egypt on reciprocal basis, has the right to file an application for the registration of industrial design or model to the Commercial Registration Administration, and is entitled to the resulting rights thereof, in accordance with the provisions of the law herein stipulated The subjects of all the Member States of the World Trade Organization shall enjoy any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity granted by any other law to the subjects of any state in respect of the rights stipulated in this chapter, unless such advantage, favor, privilege or immunity stems from:

(a) Judicial aid agreements or implementing laws of general nature.
(b) The agreements relating to the protection of the rights of intellectual property being enforced prior to the 1st January 1995.

Article 122:
The Commercial Registration Administration shall have competence to the registration of industrial designs or models in the register especially made for such purpose.
The application may include a number of designs and models not more than fifty in number provided that they collectively constitute one homogeneous unit.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall determine the procedures of registration application, the number of designs and models that may be included in one application, examination and publication procedures of the Administration decision concerning the application acceptance, and objection procedures and any other necessary procedures, as well as the prescribed fees on such applications and the renewal thereof, and on all the relative procedures, provided that the total fees do not exceed three thousand pounds.

Article 123:
The personnel of the Commercial Registration Administration shall not, whether directly or through an intermediary, file applications for the registration of industrial designs or models, unless three years at least have lapsed since the date of their leaving the service.

Article 124:
The following are industrial designs or models that shall not be registered:-

1- The design or model necessitated by the customary technical or functional considerations of the product.
2- The design or model which includes slogans, religious symbols, seals or flags of the Arab Republic of Egypt or any foreign country, or if consequences of such utilization results in breach of public order or morality.
3- The design or model that is identical, similar or resembles a registered trademark or a famous mark.
In all cases of the rejection of the registration application, the Administration shall notify the applicant with the justified rejection decision, within thirty days from the issuance thereof, in virtue of a letter delivered by certified mail, return receipt requested.
The applicant may petition against the said decision within a period of not more than thirty days from the day of notification thereof.
A committee formed by a decree from the competent Minister consisting of three members, one of whom is a member of the State Council, shall examine the petition and the committee may seek the assistance of experts.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall regulate the operational procedures thereof, and shall define the prescribed fees for the petition not to exceed five hundred pounds.
The committee shall issue its justified decision within ninety days from the date of the application of the petition.
The appeal against the decision of the committee shall be before the administrative causes court within thirty days from the notification thereof.

Article 125:
The Administration may demand that the applicant fulfills the modifications or requirements that the Administration deems necessary; in compliance with the provisions of article (124) in the manner mentioned in the executive regulations of the law herein, and if the applicant does not fulfill such requirements, the applicant shall be considered abandoning his application.
The applicant may petition against the decision of the Administration before the committee provided for in article (124) within thirty days of being notified of the decision, in accordance with the procedures defined by the executive regulations of the law herein.
The applicant may apply, on his own initiative, to the Administration with the aforementioned modifications or requirements in the manner determined by the executive regulations of the law herein.

Article 126:
The period of protection resulting from the registration of the industrial design or model shall be ten years starting from the date of the application for the registration in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The protection shall be renewed for an additional term of five years, if the owner of the design or model files an application for renewal during the last year of the protection period, in accordance with the conditions determined by the executive regulations of the law herein.
However, the owner has the right to file a renewal application within three months following the expiry date of the protection period, otherwise the Administration cancels the registration on its own initiative.

Article 127:
Following the registration of the industrial design or model, the owner thereof shall be entitled to prevent others from manufacturing, selling or importing any products having the shape of such design or model or included therein.
The right to prevent others from importing, selling or distributing the products referred to shall be exhausted, if the owner markets such products in any country or licensed others to do the same.
It shall not be considered an infringement to the right, if others use the protected industrial design or model for the following purposes:

1- Scientific research.
2- Education or training.
3- Non - commercial activities.
4- Manufacturing or selling parts of the aforementioned products, with the aim of product repair in return of equitable compensation.
5- Other uses which unreasonably do not contradict with the normal utilization of the protected industrial design or model and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner thereof, without any infringement to the interests of others.

Article 128:
Transfer of the ownership of the industrial design or model - may be eligible in whole or in part - with or without compensation, and may be eligible for mortgage or to impose usufruct thereupon.
Without prejudice to the provisions regarding selling shops and mortgage thereof, the ownership of the industrial design or model shall not be transferred, mortgaged, or usufruct, towards other parties except starting from the date of marking such in the industrial design and model register.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall determine the procedures necessary for the implementation.

Article 129:

The Commercial Registration Administration may - for the public interest and after the approval of a Ministerial Committee formed by a decree from the Prime Minister based on the proposal of the competent Minister - issue a justified decision granting others compulsory non - exclusive license to use the protected industrial design or model in return of an equitable compensation. The executive regulations of the law herein shall determine the conditions, terms, and procedures for granting such license.

Article 130:

The Administration shall publish the decisions of registration, renewal and cancellation in the Trademarks and Industrial Designs and Models Gazette accompanied by a copy of the industrial design or model as the case may be, in accordance with the terms provided for in the imp regulations of the law herein.
The provisions of articles nos. 80,81,82,83 shall apply to this chapter.

Article 131:

Any person may request peruse of the registered industrial design or model or acquire extracts or copies from the register thereof, in accordance with the rules and procedures determined by the executive regulations of the law herein in return of a fee of not more than one hundred pounds to be determined by the executive regulations.

Article 132:

Industrial designs or models fulfilling the registration prerequisites and being displayed in national or international exhibitions as determined by a decree from the competent Minister shall enjoy temporary protection.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall determine the conditions, terms, and procedures for granting such protection.

Article 133:

The Administration and any interested party may file an action before the Administrative Causes Court requesting the cancellation of the registration of the unlawfully registered industrial design or model and the Administration shall cancel the registration provided that a final judgment is presented.

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Article 134:

Without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in any other law, the following shall be penalized with a fine not less than four thousand pounds and

not exceeding ten thousand pounds: -

1- Whoever counterfeits a protected industrial design or model whose registration has been effected under the provisions of the law herein.

2- Whoever manufactures, sells, offers for sale, possesses with the intention of trading or circulation, products knowingly having a counterfeited industrial design or model.

3- Whoever unlawfully places on products, advertisements, trademarks certain materials, or other matters, statements leading to falsely believe that such industrial design or model is registered.
In case of recurrence, an imprisonment term of not less than one month and a fine not less than eight thousand pounds and not exceeding twenty thousand pounds shall apply.
In all cases, the court may decide upon the confiscation of the seized industrial design or model and the products subject of the crime and the tools used in committing the crime. The judgment shall be published, at the expense of the adjudged, in one or more newspaper.

Article 135:

The Head of the competent court, in response to a request from the concerned party and pursuant to a written order, may order one or more appropriate precautionary measures, particularly the following:

1- Proving the infringement on the protected right.
2- Calculating and describing in details the products, the tools and implements that were used or are used in committing the crime.
3- Sequestrate the materials mentioned in Article (2) In all cases, the Head of the court may order the delegation of one or more experts to assist the execution server, and may impose the deposit of an appropriate payable bail on the applicant.
The applicant shall submit the dispute to the competent court within fifteen days from the date of the issuance of the order, or else the dispute shall be null and void.

Article 136:

The applicant, against whom the order was issued, may petition to the Head of the ordering court within thirty days from the date of the issue or serving thereof, as the case may be, and the president of the court may confirm, or cancel such order in whole or in part.

Article 137:

The Minister of Justice in agreement with the competent Minister shall issue an order defining the law officers executing the provisions of this chapter.

Part III

Copyrights and Neighboring Rights

Article 138:

The following terms shall in the application of the provisions of the Law herein, be deemed to have the following meaning: -

1- Work:

Any innovated work, in the literary, artistic or scientific domain whatever the type, manner of expression, significance or purpose of classification thereof is.

2- Creativity:

The element of innovation that bestows authenticity upon the work.

3- The Author:

The person who creates the work. Any person citing his name on the work or attributing same thereto, upon publication, as the author thereof, shall be deemed the author of such work; unless otherwise has been proven.
Any person publishing an anonymous or pseudonymous work shall be deemed the author thereof; provided that no doubt is raised in respect of the true identity of the author; otherwise the publisher or producer whether a natural or juridical person, shall be deemed a representative on behalf of the author in exercising his rights; until the true identity of the author is recognized.

4- Works of collective - authorship:

The work made by more than one author under the guidance of a natural or juridical person, who shall undertake publishing the work in his name and under his supervision. The works of such authors shall be incorporated in such work, for the general purpose aimed by such person, such that the works of each author may not be separated or distinguished independently.

5- Works of Joint - authorship:

The work that may not be listed under the works of collective - authorship, and which is made by more than one person, whether the share of each person may be separated or not.

6- Derivative work:

The work that originates from a preexisting work, such as translations, musical distributions, collections of works, including data bases which are legible either from the computer or elsewhere, and groups of folklore expressions, so long as such expressions are innovated in respect of the arrangement or choice of the contents thereof.

7- National folklore:

Any expression represented in distinctive elements reflecting the conventional cultural heritage originating from or remaining in A.R.E; particularly the following expressions:

i) Verbal expressions including: Tales, riddles, puzzles, folk poems and other kinds of aphorisms.

ii) Musical expressions including: Folk songs accompanied with music.

iii) Bodily action expressions: including: Folk dances, plays, artistic forms and rituals;

iv) Tangible expressions including: Plastic folk art, particularly; drawings and paintings, carvings, sculptures, pottery, terracotta, wooden works, and the various plastic inlaying therein included, mosaic, metal, jewelry, hand weaved bags, needlework, textiles, carpets, costumes; Musical instruments; and Architectural forms.

8- Public domain

The domain into which all works that are principally excluded from protection or that the period of protection of monetary rights granted thereto has been terminated, shall fall pursuant to the provisions of the present chapter.

9- Reproduction

The making of one or more reproductions of a work or phonogram in any manner and in any form, including permanent or temporal electronic storage of the work or phonogram.

10- Publication

Any act that may, in any manner, lead to making the work, phonogram, broadcast, or performance available to the public.
The work shall be made available to the public, upon consent from the author or the right holder. However, phonograms, broadcasts or performances shall be made available to the public upon consent from the producer thereof or his successor.

11- Producer of audio or audio - visual work:

Natural or juridical person who produces the audio or audio-visual work and assumes the responsibility of such production.

12- Performers:

Actors, singers, recitalists, chanters, musicians or dancers in protected literary and artistic works that are protected pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, or that have fallen into public domain; or such persons who perform in any manner; including folklore expressions, in such works.

13- Producers of phonograms:

Natural or juridical person who first records a phonogram or a performance made by a performer, without fixing the sound to the image, upon preparing an audio - visual work.

14- Broadcasting:

The audio or audio-visual transmission of work, performance, phonogram or the work or performance recording, to the public by wireless means. Transmission via satellites is also deemed broadcasting.

15- Public performance:

Any act that may make the work available to the public, in any manner, including acting, reciting, playing or broadcasting; such that the work shall be directly communicated to the public through performance of sound, visual or audio recording.

16- Public communication:

Wire or wireless transmission of images, sounds or the images and sounds of the work; performance or phonogram; or broadcasting in a manner that enables receiving thereof through transmission alone to persons other than the family members and close friends, in any place other than the place of transmission. No regard shall be given, in this respect, to the time and place of receiving, including the time and place selected by the receiver alone through the computer or any other device.

17- Broadcasting organization:

Any person or party authorized to or responsible for audio or audiovisual broadcasting by wireless means.

18- The Competent Minister:

Shall be The Minister of Culture; the Minister of Information shall be the competent Minister for broadcasting organizations; and the Minister of Communication and Information shall be the Competent Minister for computer programs and data bases.

19- The Competent Ministry:

Shall be The Ministry of Culture; the Ministry of Information shall be the Competent Ministry for broadcasting organizations; the Ministry of Communications and Information shall be the Competent Ministry for computer

programs and data bases.

Article 139:

The protection stipulated for copyrights and neighboring rights shall include Egyptians and foreigners, either natural or juridical persons, belonging to one of the member States of the World Trade Organization and nationals thereof.
The following shall be deemed nationals of the member states:

A) For copyright:

1- Authors whose works have been first published in one of the member States of the Organization, or otherwise, simultaneously published in a non member State of the Organization and in a member State of the Organization. The work shall be deemed as having been published simultaneously in several States, if it has been published in two or more States within thirty days as of the date of first publication.
The following shall not constitute publication:

The performance of a dramatic, dramatico- musical, cinematographic, or musical work; the public recitation of a literary work; the communication by wire, or the broadcasting of literary or artistic works; the exhibition of a work of art; and the construction of a work of architecture.

2- Producers and authors of cinematographic works, the maker of which has his head quarters or habitual residence in a member State of the Organization.

3- Authors of works of architecture erected in a member state of the organization or of other artistic works incorporated in a building or other structure located in a member State of the Organization.
 

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B) For neighboring rights:

1- Performers, provided that any of the following conditions is fulfilled:

i) The performance has taken place in one of the member States of the World Trade Organization;

ii) The performance has been produced in phonograms the producer of which is a national of a member State of the World Trade Organization; or the sound thereof has been first fixed in a territory of a member State of the Organization.

iii) The performance has been transmitted through a broadcasting organization having its headquarters in a member State of the World Trade Organization; and the broadcasts have been transmitted from a transmitter situated in a member state.

2- Producers of phonograms if the sound has been first fixed in a member State of the Organization.

3- Broadcasting organizations, if their headquarters are situated in a territory of a member State of the World Trade Organization; and the broadcasts that have been transmitted from a transmitter situated in a territory of a member State of the Organization.
With regard to the protection of intellectual property, any advantage, favor, privilege or immunity granted by any other law for the nationals of any state in the Organization shall be accorded to the nationals of all the member States of The World Trade Organization. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage, favor, privilege, or immunity originating from:

1. International agreements on judicial assistance and law enforcement of a general nature;

2. Intellectual property rights - related agreements, which became effective before January 1st, 1995.

Article 140:

The rights of the authors to their literary and artistic works shall be protected by the law herein, and particularly the following works:

1- Books, pamphlets, articles, brochures and other written works.

2- Computer software.

3- Databases which are either legible by computer or by any other device.

4- Lectures, speeches, recorded sermons, and any other verbal works, provided that such are being recorded.

5- Dramatic or dramatico- musical works, and pantomime.

6- Musical compositions with or without words.

7- Audiovisual works.

8- Architectural works.

9- Works of drawing, painting, sculpture, lithography, printing on textiles, and any similar works of fine arts.

10- Photographic works and analogous works.

11- Works of applied arts and plastic arts.

12- Illustrations, geographical maps, plans, sketches, and three- dimensional works relative to geography, topography or architecture.

13- Derivative works, without prejudice to the protection granted to the works from which it has been derived.
Protection shall include the title of the work, provided that such title is innovated.

Article 141:

Protection shall not include mere ideas, procedures, methods of process, manners of operation, concepts, principles, explorations, and data; even if expressed, described, illustrated or included in a work. Protection shall not include:

First:

Official documents, whatever the source or target language thereof, including legal texts, regulations, decisions, international agreements, judicial rulings, arbitral awards, judgments issued by administrative committees of judicial competence.

Second:

News of incidents or current events having the character of mere items of press information. Nevertheless, the above items shall be protected if characterized by innovation in order, display or by any personal effort eligible for protection.

Article 142:

National folklore is deemed public domain. The Competent Ministry shall exercise the moral and financial copyrights on folklore; and shall assume the protection and support thereof.

Article 143:

The author and his successors shall enjoy, in respect of the work, permanent moral rights which are not liable for prescription or assignment. Such rights include:

First: The right to first make the work available to the public.

Second: Right to claim authorship.

Third: Right to object to any amendment which is deemed by the author as distortion or mutilation to the work.
Amendment of translation is not deemed infringement, unless the translator has omitted the citation of the places of cancellation or changes; or has prejudiced to the honor and reputation of the author by his translation.

Article 144:

The author may solely request, if serious reasons have occurred, the First Instance Court to issue a ruling of preventing the circulation of his work, withdrawing it from circulation or of entering substantial amendments thereon; in spite of such author's disposal of the financial exploitation rights. In which case, the author shall offer fair compensation in advance to the party ascribed the financial exploitation rights, which shall be paid within a period to be specified by the court; otherwise such ruling shall be null and void.

Article 145:

Any disposal of a moral right provided for in articles 143 and 144 of the law herein shall be deemed absolutely null and void.

Article 146:

The competent Ministry shall undertake the moral rights provided for in articles 143 and 144 of the present chapter, in the case that no heir or bequeathed does exist, after the lapse of the period therein prescribed for the protection of financial rights.

Article 147:

The author and his successors shall enjoy exclusive right in granting licenses or preventing any exploitation of his work, in any manner, particularly, reproduction, broadcasting, re-broadcasting, public performance, public communication, translation, modification, rental, leasing, or making available to the public, including providing such through computer, internet, information or communication networks or any other means.
Exclusive rights to rent shall not apply to:

i) Computer software, unless such are the subject of rental; and

ii) Audiovisual works, so long as such rental does not lead to the dissemination of copies thereof, in a manner that causes financial injury to the relevant holder of the exclusive right.
The author and his successor shall enjoy the right to follow up the acts of disposal of the original copy of the work thereof. Such right shall entitle the author and his successor to obtain a particular percentage, not exceeding 10 percentile on the increase achieved by each act of disposal of such copy.
The right of the author to prevent third parties from importation, usage, sale or distribution of his protected work, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein shall terminate, if the author exploited and marketed such work in any State or licensed or authorized third parties in this respect.

Article 148:

Protection granted to the copyright and the right of the translator of the work thereof into another foreign language, with respect to the translation of such work into the Arabic language shall terminate; unless the author or the translator assume such right directly or through an intermediary, within three years calculated from the date of first publication of the original or translated work.

Article 149:

The author may transfer some or all of the financial rights thereof as defined by the law herein to third parties.
Disposal of such rights shall be established provided being conducted in writing and each right that has been subject of disposal is explicitly and determined in details, and the scope, purpose, period and place of exploitation are illustrated.
The author shall be the owner of all the financial rights that have not been explicitly assigned. The license granted by the owner for exploitation of one of such rights shall not be deemed a license to exploit any other financial right enjoyed by the author in respect of the work itself.
Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author provided for in the law herein, the author shall not undertake any act that is liable to hinder the exploitation of the disposed right.

Article 150:

The author may receive financial or in kind fair compensation in return for the transference of one or more of the financial exploitation rights of his work to third parties. Such compensation shall be in the form of percentage participation in the income generated by exploitation. The author may further conduct contracts based on randomly estimated sums of money or based on a combination of both the percentage participation and the randomly estimated sums of money.

Article 151:

If it appears that the agreement mentioned in article (150) of the law herein or developed to be unfair to the copyrights due to certain conditions that occurred after contracting, the author or his successor may resort to the Court of First Instance, requesting to re-evaluate the compensation that has been agreed upon, without prejudice to the rights of the contracting party.

Article 152:

The author's disposal of the original copy of his work, whatever the kind of such disposal, shall not result in transferring the financial rights thereof.
However, the receiver of such disposal may not be ordered to enable the author to reproduce, transfer or display the original copy; unless otherwise agreed upon.

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Article 153:

The author's disposal on all future intellectual production thereof shall be deemed absolutely null and void.

Article 154:

The financial rights of authors to their works that have been published or offered for circulation may be sequestrated. Works whose owner has died before publication may not be sequestrated; unless it has been proven that such author was willing to publish the same before his death.

Article 155:

Performers and their successors shall enjoy a permanent moral right, which is not liable for assignment or prescription. Such right entitle the performers and their successors to the following:

1- Right to attribute the live or recorded performance to the performers in the manner thus created.

2- Right to prevent others from modifying, distorting or mutilating their performance.
After the lapse of the period prescribed for protection of financial rights provided for in the law herein, the competent Ministry shall exercise such moral right, if no heir or bequeathed does exist.

Article 156:

Performers shall enjoy the following financial exclusive rights:

1- Communicating their performance to the public and grant licenses for making available to the public, rental or leasing of the original recording of the performance or copies therefrom.

2- Preventing exploitation of their performance in any manner, without previous written authorization therefrom. The recording of such live performance on a medium or rental thereof, for the aim of acquiring direct or indirect commercial revenue, or broadcasting same to the public shall be deemed prohibited
exploitation.

3- Renting or leasing the original performance or copies therefrom to achieve direct or indirect commercial purpose; regardless of the ownership of the original or rented copies.

4- Making a registered performance available to the public through broadcasting computers or any other means, for the aim of being separately received in any place or at any time.
The provision of the present article shall not apply to the recording of performance made by the respective performers within an audiovisual recording, unless otherwise agreed upon.

Article 157:

Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the following exclusive financial rights:

1- Preventing any exploitation of their phonograms, in any manner, without having previous written authorizations therefrom. In this sense, the reproduction, rental, broadcasting or making available of such phonograms through computers or any other means shall be deemed prohibited exploitation.

2- Making phonograms available to the public through wire or wireless means, computers or any other means.

Article 158:

Broadcasting organizations shall enjoy the following exclusive financial rights:

1- To grant license for exploitation of the recordings thereof.

2- To prevent any communication of the televised broadcasts thereof to the public, without a previous written authorization therefrom. It shall be deemed prohibited exploitation, the recordation, reproduction, sale, rental, retransmitting, distribution or communication of such broadcast to the public in any manner, including removal or distortion of any technical protection granted to such broadcasts, such as encoding or otherwise.

Article 159:

Provisions relating to the author's assignment of the financial rights thereof pursuant to the law herein, shall apply to the holders of neighboring rights.
Performers and broadcasting organizations shall only have the right, without prejudice to the exclusive rights thereof provided for in the law herein, to acquire equitable financial consideration only once in return for direct or indirect usage of broadcasts that have been published for the commercial purposes of broadcasting or communication to the public; unless otherwise agreed upon.

Article 160:

The protection term for financial rights of the Author granted by the law herein shall be the life of the author and fifty years calculated from the author's death.

Article 161:

The protection term for the financial rights of authors of a work of joint - authorship shall be the life of such authors and fifty years calculated from the death of the last surviving author.

Article 162:

The protection term for the financial rights of the authors of a work of collectiveauthorship - with the exception of the authors of applied art works - shall be fifty years calculated from the date of publication or of first making the work available to the public, whichever is later. Such provision shall apply if the right holder is a juridical person; however, if the right holder is a natural person, the protection term shall be in accordance with the provisions provided for in articles 160 and 161 of the law herein.
The financial rights on the works first published after the death of the author thereof shall terminate upon the lapse of fifty years calculated from the date of first publication or first making the work available to the public, whichever is later.

Article 163:

The protection term for financial rights of anonymous and pseudonymous works shall be fifty years calculated from the date of first publishing or first making the work available to the public, whichever is later. If the author of such work is defined and well known or has disclosed his identity, the protection term shall be pursuant to the provisions of article 160 of the law herein.

Article 164 :

The financial rights of the authors of applied art works shall terminate by the lapse of twenty five years after the date in which the work has been first published or made available to the public, whichever is later.

Article 165:

In the case of calculating the protection term from the date of first publishing or first making the work available to the public, the date of first publication or first making the work available to the public, whichever is later, shall be taken as a basis for calculating the term. The repetition of publication or of making the work
available to the public shall not be taken into regard; unless the author has entered substantial modifications on such work upon repetition, so as such work may be deemed novel.
If the work is composed of several parts or volumes that have been separately published on intervals, each part or volume shall be deemed independent when calculating the term of protection.
 

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Article 166:

Performers shall enjoy exclusive financial rights in the area of their performance in the manner set forth in article 156 of the law herein, for fifty years calculated from the date of performance or registration, as the case necessitates.

Article 167:

Producers of phonograms shall enjoy exclusive financial rights in the area of exploitation of their phonograms, in the manner set forth in article 157, for fifty years calculated from the date of registration or publication, whichever is later, within the limits provided for in the law herein.

Article 168:

Broadcasting organizations shall enjoy financial exclusive rights, entitling such to exploit the broadcast thereof for twenty years starting from the date of first transmitting such broadcast.

Article 169:

Broadcasting organizations may broadcast the works, which are performed in public. Such organizations shall announce the name of the author and the title of the work, and provide fair compensation in kind or in cash to the author. Such organizations shall pay any other compensation as necessary.

Article 170:

Any person may demand the competent Ministry to grant such person a personal license for reproducing and /or translating any protected work pursuant to the stipulations of the law herein, without having the author's permission, for the purposes set forth in the following paragraph. The grant of such license shall be against payment of fair compensation to the author or his successors. Such license shall not contradict with the normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author or the copyright holders.
Licenses shall be granted, pursuant to a justified decision in which the time and place limits thereof are specified; and for the purposes of fulfilling the requirements of all kinds and levels of education.
The executive regulations of the law herein shall define the conditions and terms stipulated for granting licenses, as well as the categories of the due fees, which shall not exceed one thousand Egyptian pounds for each work.

Article 171:

Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author may not prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts:

First:

Performance of a work in meetings with family members or pupils in an educational institution, so long as such performance has been without direct or indirect financial consideration.

Second:

Reproducing one single copy of the work to be used by the reproducer himself, provided that such reproduction does not contradict with the normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author or the holders of copyrights. Nevertheless, the author or his successors may prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts, without permission therefrom:

- Reproducing, photographing or copying fine, applied or plastic arts, unless existing in public, or is an architectural work;

- Reproducing or copying all or a substantial part of a musical note.

- Reproducing or copying all or a substantial part of computer database or software.

Third:

Making one single copy of the computer software with the consent of the legitimate holder thereof, for the purpose of keeping or substitution in case of loss, distortion or invalidation of the original copy; or for the purpose of quotation from the program, even if such quotation exceeds the scope necessary for using such program, so long as quotation is within the licensed purpose. The original or quoted copy shall be destroyed upon the fulfillment of the holder's reasons. The executive regulation implementing the law herein, shall define the conditions and terms of quotation from such program.

Fourth:

Conducting analytic studies of the work or parts or quotations therefrom, for the purpose of criticism, discussion or media.
Reproducing protected works for usage in judicial or administrative procedures, within the limits prescribed by such procedures; and mention shall be made of the source and the name of the author.

Sixth:

Reproducing extracts of a work in the form of manuscripts or audio, visual, or audio- visual recordings, for the purposes of teaching for illustration or explanation, with the provision that:
i) Reproduction shall be within thereasonable limits;

ii) Reproduction shall not surpass the purpose thereof; and

iii) mention shall be made of the name of the author and the title of the work on all copies of the works, whenever possible.

Seventh:

Reproducing an article, short work or a derivative of a work, if necessary, for thepurposes of teaching in educational institutions, with the provision that:

i) Reproduction shall be made only once or on separate and interrupted intervals.

ii) Mention shall be made of the name of the author and the title of the work on each copy.

Eighth:

Making one single copy of the work through the national archives; or through the non-profit libraries- either directly or indirectly - in the following cases:

- Reproduction is made for a published article, a short work or a derivative of a work, so long as the purpose of reproduction has been in fulfillment of a request made by a natural person, for using same in study or research. Such reproduction shall be made for once or on irregular intervals.

- Reproduction is made for the purpose of maintaining the original copy or of substituting a lost, destroyed or spoiled copy, where it became impracticable to obtain a substitute thereof under reasonable conditions.

Ninth:

Temporarily reproducing work subsequent to or during the digital transmission of the work; or during exercising an act aiming at receiving a digitally stored work; and within the framework of normal operation of the device used by the right holder.

Article 172:

Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author or his successor in title shall not prevent the newspapers, periodicals or broadcasting organizations, within the limits justified by the objective thereof from the following:

First:

Publishing extracts of the works thereof that have been lawfully made available to the public and the published articles thereof relating to issues which have occupied public opinion at certain times; unless such has been prohibited by the author upon publication. Mention shall be made in this case, of the source of such selections, the name of the author and title of the work.

Second:

Publishing speeches, lectures, seminars, and address delivered in the course of public sessions of parliament, legislative and administrative organizations and public meetings in the scientific, literary, artistic, political, social, and religious domain, including judicial hearings in the public sessions. However, the author or his successor shall have the sole right to compile such works in collections attributed thereto.

Third:

Publishing extracts of an audio, visual, or audiovisual work that has been made available to the public within press coverage of current incidents.

Article 173:

The restrictions applicable to the financial rights of the author shall apply, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, to the holders of neighboring rights.
 

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Article 174:

In case of works of joint - authorship, in which the shares of authors may not be separated, all the joint - authors shall be deemed equal authors of the work; unless otherwise agreed upon in writing.
In which case, no author may separately undertake the copyrights; unless pursuant to a written agreement therebetween.
If the participation of each of the authors has been categorized under a different kind of art, each author may exploit the part independently offered by him in participation thereof; provided that no prejudice shall be caused to the exploitation of the joint-work; unless otherwise agreed upon in writing.
Each author may bring an action, in case of infringement upon any of the copyrights.
In case of the death of any of the joint-authors without having a successor or heir the share thereto shall be transferred to the rest of the joint-authors or the successors thereof; unless otherwise agreed upon in writing.

Article 175:

Any natural or juridical person who directed the creation of a collective work may solely enjoy the right to undertake the copyrights thereon.

Article 176:

In case of anonymous and pseudonymous works, the publisher shall be deemed to represent the author, and in such capacity, shall be entitled to exercise the rights provided for in the law herein.

Article 177:

The following shall be deemed a Joint-author of an audiovisual, audio or visual work:

First:

1- Author of scenario, or the intellectual creator of broadcast;

2- Assimilator of an existing literary work, to make such work suitable for audiovisual manner;

3- Author of a dialogue;

4- Music composer if composing such music especially for the work; and

5- The director, who has acted positively in the intellectual aspect to accomplish such work.
If the work is simplified or derived from another previous work, the author of the previous work shall be deemed a joint-author of the new work.

Second:

Author of a scenario, assimilator of literary work, author of a dialogue and director, shall jointly have the right to display the audio, visual or audiovisual work; in spite of the objection made by the author of the original literary work or music composer, without prejudice to the rights of the objecting party which result from joint- authorship.

Third:

The author of the literary or musical part may publish the work thereof in a manner other than that specified for publishing the joint - work; unless otherwise agreed upon in writing.

Fourth:

If one of the joint-authors of an audiovisual, audio or visual work abstained from completing the part thereof, the rest of the joint-authors shall not be subsequently prevented from using the part accomplished by each of them; without prejudice to the rights of the abstaining party resulting from being a joint- author of the work.

Fifth:

The producer shall be deemed, during the exploitation of an audiovisual, audio or visual work that has been agreed upon, a representative of the authors of such works and of the successors thereof in conducting agreements on the exploitation of the work; without prejudice to the rights of the authors of quoted or assimilated literary or musical works; unless otherwise agreed upon in writing.
The producer shall be deemed the publisher of such work and shall have the rights entitled to the publisher regarding such work and the reproduction thereof, within the scope of commercial exploitation thereof.

Article 178:

Any person taking a photograph of another, may not publish, exhibit or distribute the original or copies thereof, without permission therefrom or from all persons appearing in the photograph, unless otherwise agreed upon. Nevertheless, the photograph may be published:

i) In an incident that has publicly taken place;

ii) If the photograph is related to official, public characters, or national or international celebrities; or

iii) If the competent Public Authorities have permitted such publication for the public welfare; Provided that the exhibition or circulation of the photograph, in such cases, shall not be prejudicial to the honor, reputation or recognition of such person.
The person appearing in such photograph may authorize the publication thereof in press and other publication means, even if the photographer did not permit such publication; unless otherwise agreed upon. Such provisions shall apply to photographs, whatever the manner of taking such photographs, including drawing, engraving or any other manner.

Article 179:

The Head of the Court of jurisdiction may order, upon request of the interested party, and pursuant to an injunction that one or more of the following or other relevant provisional measures be taken, if infringement has taken place on any of the rights provided for in the present chapter:

1- Conducting detailed description of the work, performance, phonogram or broadcast.

2- Ceasing the publication, of the work, performance, phonogram or broadcast, and ceasing the display, reproducing or making thereof.

3- Sequestrating the original or copies of the work, phonogram or broadcast, as well as the articles that has been used in re-publishing or reproducing such work, performance, phonogram or broadcast; provided that such materials are invalid except for re-publishing the work, performance, phonogram or broadcast.

4- Proving the incident of infringement on the protected right.

5- Calculating revenues resulting due to the exploitation of the work, performance, phonogram or broadcast, and sequestrating such income in all cases.
The Head of the Court may, in all cases, order the delegation of one or more experts for assisting the process server charged with execution; and order the applicant to post a relevant guarantee.
The applicant shall refer the dispute to the Court within fifteen days calculated from the date of issuing the order; otherwise the order shall be deemed null and void.
 

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Article 180:

The interested parties may lodge a petition to the Head of the relevant Court, within thirty days, as of the date of issuing or announcing the order, as necessary. The Head of the Court may either confirm or revoke the order in whole or in part; or appoint a trustee charged with re-publishing, exploiting, displaying, making or reproducing the work, phonogram or broadcast. The generated revenue shall be posted in the treasury of the court, until a decision is issued in the dispute.

Article 181:

Without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in any other law, any person committing one of the following offences shall be penalized by imprisonment for not less than one month and a fine of not less than five thousand Egyptian pounds, and not exceeding ten thousand Egyptian pounds, or either of both penalties: -

First:

Selling or renting a work, phonogram, or broadcast protected pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, or offering same for circulation, in any manner, without a previous written permission from the author or the holder of the neighboring right.

Second:

Counterfeiting, selling, or offering for sale, circulation or rental, a work, phonogram or broadcast, while being aware that the same is a counterfeit.

Third:

Domestically counterfeiting, selling, offering for sale, circulation or rental or exporting a work, phonogram or broadcast that has been published abroad, while being aware that the same is a counterfeit.

Fourth:

Publishing a work, phonogram, broadcast or performance protected pursuant to the provisions of the law herein via computers, internet, information networks, communication networks or any other means, without having prior written permission from the author or holder of the neighboring right.

Fifth:

Manufacturing, assembling or importing, for the purpose of sale or rental any apparatus, means or device designed or prepared for manipulating technical protection used by the author or holder of neighboring rights, such as encoding or otherwise.

Sixth:

Removing, impairing or mutilating, in mala fide, any technical protection used by the author or holder of neighboring rights, as encoding or otherwise.

Seventh:

Moral or financial infringement upon any copyright or neighboring right provided for in the law herein. The penalty shall be diverse according to the diverse infringing of works, phonograms, broadcasts or performance subject of the crime.
In case of recurrence, the penalty shall be imprisonment for not less than three months and a fine not less than ten thousand Egyptian pounds, and not more than fifty thousand Egyptian pounds.
In all cases the Court shall order the confiscation of infringing copies or copies subject of the crime as well as the equipment, and devices used in the commitment thereof.
The Court may in case of conviction, decide upon closing the establishment used by the convicted party in such crime for a period not exceeding six months.
Closure shall be mandatory in case of recurrence in respect of the crimes provided for in clauses (second and third) of the present article.
The Court shall decide upon publishing the summary of the Court ruling of the conviction in one or more daily newspapers on the expense of the adjudged party.

Article 182:

If the parties to the dispute agreed upon arbitration, provisions of the Arbitration Law, # 27 of 1994, in respect of the commercial and civil articles shall apply; unless otherwise agreed upon.

Article 183:

The competent Ministry shall issue a license of commercial or professional exploitation of the work, phonogram, performance or broadcast, which falls into the public domain, in return for a fee specified by the executive regulations implementing the law herein not to exceed one thousand Egyptian pounds.

Article 184:

Publishers, printing press and producers of works, phonograms, recorded performances, and broadcasts shall collectively deposit one or more copies therefrom, not exceeding ten copies. The competent Minister shall issue a decree determining the number of copies or equivalents thereof, subject to the nature of each work as well as the depositary party.
No prejudice shall be caused to the copyrights or neighboring rights provided for in the law herein, in case of failing to deposit.
The publisher, printing press and producer, in case of violating the provisions of the first paragraph of the present article, shall be penalized by a fine not less than one thousand Egyptian pounds and not exceeding three thousand Egyptian pounds for each work, phonogram or broadcast, without infraction to the commitment to deposit.
Works published in newspapers, magazines and periodicals shall be exempted from deposit unless the work is separately published.

Article 185:

The competent Ministry shall establish a register for recording disposals on the works, performances, phonograms, and broadcasts that are governed by the provisions of the law herein. The executive regulations shall define the method of recording in such register in return for a fee not exceeding one thousand Egyptian pounds for each recordation.
Disposals shall not be effective towards third parties, unless after the recordation has been completed.

Article 186:

Any person may obtain a certificate of depositing a work, recorded performance, phonogram, or broadcast, from the relevant Ministry in return for a fee defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein, not exceeding one thousand Egyptian pounds for each certificate.

Article 187:

All shops that offer for circulation through sale, rental, leasing or granting licenses of exploitation of works, recorded performance, phonograms or broadcasts, shall undertake the following:

1- Obtain a license to this end from the competent Minister, in return for a fee to be defined by the executive regulations implementing the law herein, not exceeding one thousand Egyptian pounds.

2- Maintain regular books for recording the data of each work, phonogram or broadcast, as well as the year of offering same to circulation.
Without prejudice to any severer penalty stipulated in any other law, violation of the provisions of the present article shall be punishable by a fine not less than five thousand Egyptian pounds and not exceeding ten thousand Egyptian pounds.
In case of recurrence, the penalty shall be a fine not less than ten thousand Egyptian pounds and not exceeding twenty thousand Egyptian pounds.
 

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Article 188:

The Minister of Justice shall issue, upon agreement with the competent Minister, a decree determining the law officers entitled to execute the provisions of the law herein.